Council of Scientific Editors (CSE)
Name-Year (N-Y) Format

In-text citations---
Restate the information in your own words rather than quoting directly.

In text citations should include the name of the author(s) and year of publication.
Examples: 1. One author  The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that. .    
                 2. Two authors The most recent work on albuterol administration (Mazan and Hoffman 2001) indicates...
                 3. Three or more authors  Later studies (Ito et al. 1999) established that....

References List (List alphabetically by author or corporate author at the end of your paper.)

Basic format for books on your References List  (Name-Year Format)
Author(s). date of publication. Title. Publication location: publisher. pagination (optional).

Note:  Use only the last name and initials of authors. Omit comma between last name and initial.
Book with one author

Catchpole C. 1995. Bird song: biological themes and variations. New York: Cambridge Univ Pr. 248 p.
Book with 2 or more authors
Burt A, Trivers R. 2006. Genes in conflict: the biology of selfish genetic elementsCambridge, (Mass): Harvard University Press. 602 p.
Note:  if there are more than ten authors, list the first ten followed by "et al" or "and others".
Book with editor(s)
Gilman AG, Rall TW, editors. 1990. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. 1811 p.
Book with organization as author
National Research Council (US). 2004. Science, medicine, and animals: a circle of discovery. Washington DC: National Research Council, National Academies Press. 52 p.
Chapter of a book
Shakelford RT. 1978. Surgery of the alimentary tract.  Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders: Chapter 2, Esophagoscopy; p. 29-40.

Basic format for journal articles on your References List (Name-Year Format)
Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. volume (issue):pages.
Journal article with one author

Huey B. 1992. Complete wetting from polymer mixtures. Science 258:1122-9.
Journal article with more than one author
You CH, Lee KY, Chey RY, Menguy R. 1980. Electrograstrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating and vomiting. Gastroenterology 79:311-4.
Note:  if there are more than ten authors, list the first ten followed by "et al" or "and others".
Journal article with organization as author
Transylvanian Red Cross. 1996. Recommended method for collection of  blood. J Lab Invest 34:119-25.
No author given- journal article  (Do not use the word Anonymous, start citation with name of journal)
Int J Epidemiol. 1999. Epidemiology for primary health care. 5:224-5.
Non-scientific article in a magazine
Goho A. 2007 May 19. Our microbes, ourselves: how bacterial communities in the body influence human health. Science News. 314-316.

Basic format for Internet sites (not journal articles from databases). Due to the nature of Internet publishing, not all elements may be available from a website.
Authors(s) [or editor(s)]. Date of publication. Title. Place of publication: publisher name. [Date cited]. Number of pages. Availability statement.
Lawrence RA. 1997 Oct. A review of the medical benefits and contraindications to breastfeeding in the United States [Internet]. Arlington (VA): National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health; [cited 2005 Jun 28]. 40 p. Available from:

Basic format for Internet journal articles 
Author(s). Date of publication. Title of article. Abbreviated journal title Volume number (Issue number):Pagination [type of medium]. Date cited. Availability statement.

Journal article from a library database (eg. Academic Onefile, JStor, ScienceDirect, etc.)
Paton RC, Nwana HS, Shave MJR, Bench-Capon TJM. 1994. British j philosophy sci 45:2 In Academic OneFile [database on the Internet]. cited 2007 Sept 3. Available from:

Journal article from an Internet search (such as Google Scholar or PubMed, not in a library database)
Gellrich N, Schimming R, Zerfowski M, Eysel UT. 2002. Quantification of histological changes after calibrated crush of the intraorbital optic nerve in rats. Br J Ophthalmol 86:2 p233-237. [journal website] Cited 2006 Feb 23. Available from:

To cite an image from the Internet
The CSE Manual does not address this issue but include as much of the following as available--

  • Photographer, artist, or creator's name
  • Title of the work
  • Date created
  • Repository, museum, or owner
  • City or Country of origin
  • Access date and web site address (URL)

For more complete information see:
Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. Scientific style and format: the CSE
Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.
Copies are located in the Reference collection (Cooke Wing).